### Archive

Archive for the ‘Analysis’ Category

## Project Euler Problem 285

Another quite nice problem from Project Euler is number 285. The result of the problem depends on the computation of a certain probability, which in turn is related to the computation of a certain area. Below is an illustration of the computation for k equal to 10.

To save you some time, here’s a picture of the case k=1 which I ignored and spent quite a lot of time debugging… Plus, it only affects the last three digits or so after the decimal point…

Here’s a Matlab code which can construct the pictures above and can compute the result for low cases. To solve the problem, you should compute explicitly all these areas.


function problem285(k)

N = 100000;

a = rand(1,N);
b = rand(1,N);

ind = find(abs(sqrt((k*a+1).^2+(k*b+1).^2)-k)<0.5);

plot(a(ind),b(ind),'.');
axis equal

M = k;
pl = 1;

for k=1:M
if mod(k,100)==0
k
end
r1 = (k+0.5)/k;
r2 = (k-0.5)/k;

f1 = @(x) (x<=(-1/k+r1)).*(x>=(-1/k-r1)).*(sqrt(r1^2-(x+1/k).^2)-1/k).*(x>=0).*(x<=1); f1 = @(x) f1(x).*(f1(x)>=0);
f2 = @(x) (x<=(-1/k+r2)).*(x>=(-1/k-r2)).*(sqrt(r2^2-(x+1/k).^2)-1/k).*(x>=0).*(x<=1); f2 = @(x) f2(x).*(f2(x)>=0);

if k == pl
thetas = linspace(0,pi/2,200);
hold on
plot(-1/k+r1*cos(thetas),-1/k+r1*sin(thetas),'r','LineWidth',2);
plot(-1/k+r2*cos(thetas),-1/k+r2*sin(thetas),'r','LineWidth',2);
plot([0 1 1 0 0],[0 0 1 1 0],'k','LineWidth',3);
hold off
axis off
end

A(k) = integral(@(x) f1(x)-f2(x),0,1);

end

xs = xlim;
ys = ylim;

w = 0.01;
axis([xs(1)-w xs(2)+w ys(1)-w ys(2)+w]);

sum((1:k).*A)



## Some of the easy Putnam 2016 Problems

Here are a few of the problems of the Putnam 2016 contest. I choose to only list problems which I managed to solve. Most of them are pretty straightforward, so maybe the solutions posted here may be very similar to the official ones. You can find a complete list of the problems on other sites, for example here.

A1. Find the smallest integer ${j}$ such that for every polynomial ${p}$ with integer coefficients and every integer ${k}$, the number

$\displaystyle p^{(j)}(k),$

that is the ${j}$-th derivative of ${p}$ evaluated at ${k}$, is divisible by ${2016}$.

Hints. Successive derivatives give rise to terms containing products of consecutive numbers. The product of ${j}$ consecutive numbers is divisible by ${j!}$. Find the smallest number such that ${2016 | j!}$. Prove that ${j-1}$ does not work by choosing ${p = x^{j-1}}$. Prove that ${j}$ works by working only on monomials…

## IMC 2016 – Day 2 – Problem 7

Problem 7. Today, Ivan the Confessor prefers continuous functions ${f:[0,1]\rightarrow \Bbb{R}}$ satisfying ${f(x)+f(y) \geq |x-y|}$ for all ${x,y \in [0,1]}$. Fin the minimum of ${\int_0^1 f}$ over all preferred functions.

## IMC 2016 – Day 2 – Problem 6

July 28, 2016 1 comment

Problem 6. Let ${(x_1,x_2,...)}$ be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying ${\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{x_n}{2n-1}=1}$. Prove that

$\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^\infty \sum_{n=1}^k \frac{x_n}{k^2} \leq 2.$

## IMC 2016 – Day 1 – Problem 1

Problem 1. Let ${f:[a,b] \rightarrow \Bbb{R}}$ be continuous on ${[a,b]}$ and differentiable on ${(a,b)}$. Suppose that ${f}$ has infinitely many zeros, but there is no ${x \in (a,b)}$ with ${f(x)=f'(x) = 0}$.

• (a) Prove that ${f(a)f(b)=0}$.
• (b) Give an example of such a function.

## SEEMOUS 2016 Problem 4 – Solution

Problem 4. Let ${n \geq 1}$ be an integer and set

$\displaystyle I_n = \int_0^\infty \frac{\arctan x}{(1+x^2)^n}dx.$

Prove that

a) ${\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^\infty \frac{I_n}{n} =\frac{\pi^2}{6}.}$

b) ${\displaystyle \int_0^\infty \arctan x \cdot \ln \left( 1+\frac{1}{x^2}\right) dx = \frac{\pi^2}{6}}$.

## SEEMOUS 2016 – Problems

Problem 1. Let ${f}$ be a continuous and decreasing real valued function defined on ${[0,\pi/2]}$. Prove that

$\displaystyle \int_{\pi/2-1}^{\pi/2} f(x)dx \leq \int_0^{\pi/2} f(x)\cos x dx \leq \int_0^1 f(x) dx.$

When do we have equality?

Problem 2. a) Prove that for every matrix ${X \in \mathcal{M}_2(\Bbb{C})}$ there exists a matrix ${Y \in \mathcal{M}_2(\Bbb{C})}$ such that ${Y^3 = X^2}$.

b) Prove that there exists a matrix ${A \in \mathcal{M}_3(\Bbb{C})}$ such that ${Z^3 \neq A^2}$ for all ${Z \in \mathcal{M}_3(\Bbb{C})}$.

Problem 3. Let ${A_1,A_2,...,A_k}$ be idempotent matrices (${A_i^2 = A_i}$) in ${\mathcal{M}_n(\Bbb{R})}$. Prove that

$\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^k N(A_i) \geq \text{rank} \left(I-\prod_{i=1}^k A_i\right),$

where ${N(A_i) = n-\text{rank}(A_i)}$ and ${\mathcal{M}_n(\Bbb{R})}$ is the set of ${n \times n}$ matrices with real entries.

Problem 4. Let ${n \geq 1}$ be an integer and set

$\displaystyle I_n = \int_0^\infty \frac{\arctan x}{(1+x^2)^n}dx.$

Prove that

a) ${\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^\infty \frac{I_n}{n} =\frac{\pi^2}{6}.}$

b) ${\displaystyle \int_0^\infty \arctan x \cdot \ln \left( 1+\frac{1}{x^2}\right) dx = \frac{\pi^2}{6}}$.

Some hints follow.