### Archive

Archive for the ‘Olympiad’ Category

## IMO 2018 Problems – Day 2

Problem 4. A site is any point ${(x, y)}$ in the plane such that ${x}$ and ${y}$ are both positive integers less than or equal to 20.

Initially, each of the 400 sites is unoccupied. Amy and Ben take turns placing stones with Amy going first. On her turn, Amy places a new red stone on an unoccupied site such that the distance between any two sites occupied by red stones is not equal to ${\sqrt{5}}$. On his turn, Ben places a new blue stone on any unoccupied site. (A site occupied by a blue stone is allowed to be at any distance from any other occupied site.) They stop as soon as a player cannot place a stone.

Find the greatest ${K}$ such that Amy can ensure that she places at least ${K}$ red stones, no matter how Ben places his blue stones.

Problem 5. Let ${a_1,a_2,\ldots}$ be an infinite sequence of positive integers. Suppose that there is an integer ${N > 1}$ such that, for each ${n \geq N}$, the number

$\displaystyle \frac{a_1}{a_2} + \frac{a_2}{a_3} + \ldots + \frac{a_{n-1}}{a_n} + \frac{a_n}{a_1}$

is an integer. Prove that there is a positive integer ${M}$ such that ${a_m = a_{m+1}}$ for all ${m \geq M}$.

Problem 6. A convex quadrilateral ${ABCD}$ satisfies ${AB\cdot CD = BC\cdot DA}$. Point ${X}$ lies inside ${ABCD}$ so that ${\angle{XAB} = \angle{XCD}}$ and ${\angle{XBC} = \angle{XDA}}$. Prove that ${\angle{BXA} + \angle{DXC} = 180}$.

Source: AoPS

## IMO 2018 Problems – Day 1

Problem 1. Let ${\Gamma}$ be the circumcircle of acute triangle ${ABC}$. Points ${D}$ and ${E}$ are on segments ${AB}$ and ${AC}$ respectively such that ${AD = AE}$. The perpendicular bisectors of ${BD}$ and ${CE}$ intersect minor arcs ${AB}$ and ${AC}$ of ${\Gamma}$ at points ${F}$ and ${G}$ respectively. Prove that lines ${DE}$ and ${FG}$ are either parallel or they are the same line.

Problem 2. Find all integers ${n \geq 3}$ for which there exist real numbers ${a_1, a_2, \dots a_{n + 2}}$ satisfying ${a_{n + 1} = a_1}$, ${a_{n + 2} = a_2}$ and

$\displaystyle a_ia_{i + 1} + 1 = a_{i + 2}$

For ${i = 1, 2, \dots, n}$.

Problem 3. An anti-Pascal triangle is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of the two numbers immediately below it. For example, the following is an anti-Pascal triangle with four rows which contains every integer from ${1}$ to ${10}$

$\displaystyle 4$

$\displaystyle 2\quad 6$

$\displaystyle 5\quad 7 \quad 1$

$\displaystyle 8\quad 3 \quad 10 \quad 9$

Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with ${2018}$ rows which contains every integer from ${1}$ to ${1 + 2 + 3 + \dots + 2018}$?

Source: AoPS.

## Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2018

Problem 1. A quadrilateral ${ABCD}$ is inscribed in a circle ${k}$, where ${AB>CD}$ and ${AB}$ is not parallel to ${CD}$. Point ${M}$ is the intersection of the diagonals ${AC}$ and ${BD}$ and the perpendicular from ${M}$ to ${AB}$ intersects the segment ${AB}$ at the point ${E}$. If ${EM}$ bisects the angle ${CED}$, prove that ${AB}$ is a diameter of the circle ${k}$.

Problem 2. Let ${q}$ be a positive rational number. Two ants are initially at the same point ${X}$ in the plane. In the ${n}$-th minute ${(n=1,2,...)}$ each of them chooses whether to walk due north, east, south or west and then walks the distance of ${q^n}$ meters. After a whole number of minutes, they are at the same point in the plane (non necessarily ${X}$), but have not taken exactly the same route within that time. Determine all the possible values of ${q}$.

Problem 3. Alice and Bob play the following game: They start with two non-empty piles of coins. Taking turns, with Alice playing first, each player chooses a pile with an even number of coins and moves half of the coins of this pile to the other pile. The came ends if a player cannot move, in which case the other player wins.

Determine all pairs ${(a,b)}$ of positive integers such that if initially the two piles have ${a}$ and ${b}$ coins, respectively, then Bob has a winning strategy.

Problem 4. Find all primes ${p}$ and ${q}$ such that ${3p^{q-1}+1}$ divides ${11^q+17^p}$.

## Romanian Masters in Mathematics contest – 2018

Problem 1. Let ${ABCD}$ be a cyclic quadrilateral an let ${P}$ be a point on the side ${AB.}$ The diagonals ${AC}$ meets the segments ${DP}$ at ${Q.}$ The line through ${P}$ parallel to ${CD}$ mmets the extension of the side ${CB}$ beyond ${B}$ at ${K.}$ The line through ${Q}$ parallel to ${BD}$ meets the extension of the side ${CB}$ beyond ${B}$ at ${L.}$ Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles ${BKP}$ and ${CLQ}$ are tangent .

Problem 2. Determine whether there exist non-constant polynomials ${P(x)}$ and ${Q(x)}$ with real coefficients satisfying

$\displaystyle P(x)^{10}+P(x)^9 = Q(x)^{21}+Q(x)^{20}.$

Problem 3. Ann and Bob play a game on the edges of an infinite square grid, playing in turns. Ann plays the first move. A move consists of orienting any edge that has not yet been given an orientation. Bob wins if at any point a cycle has been created. Does Bob have a winning strategy?

Problem 4. Let ${a,b,c,d}$ be positive integers such that ${ad \neq bc}$ and ${gcd(a,b,c,d)=1}$. Let ${S}$ be the set of values attained by ${\gcd(an+b,cn+d)}$ as ${n}$ runs through the positive integers. Show that ${S}$ is the set of all positive divisors of some positive integer.

Problem 5. Let ${n}$ be positive integer and fix ${2n}$ distinct points on a circle. Determine the number of ways to connect the points with ${n}$ arrows (oriented line segments) such that all of the following conditions hold:

• each of the ${2n}$ points is a startpoint or endpoint of an arrow;
• no two arrows intersect;
• there are no two arrows ${\overrightarrow{AB}}$ and ${\overrightarrow{CD}}$ such that ${A}$, ${B}$, ${C}$ and ${D}$ appear in clockwise order around the circle (not necessarily consecutively).

Problem 6. Fix a circle ${\Gamma}$, a line ${\ell}$ to tangent ${\Gamma}$, and another circle ${\Omega}$ disjoint from ${\ell}$ such that ${\Gamma}$ and ${\Omega}$ lie on opposite sides of ${\ell}$. The tangents to ${\Gamma}$ from a variable point ${X}$ on ${\Omega}$ meet ${\ell}$ at ${Y}$ and ${Z}$. Prove that, as ${X}$ varies over ${\Omega}$, the circumcircle of ${XYZ}$ is tangent to two fixed circles.

Source: Art of Problem Solving forums

Some quick ideas: For Problem 1 just consider the intersection of the circle ${(BKP)}$ with the circle ${(ABCD)}$. You’ll notice immediately that this point belongs to the circle ${(CLQ)}$. Furthermore, there is a common tangent to the two circles at this point.

For Problem 2 we have ${10\deg P = 21 \deg Q}$. Eliminate the highest order term from both sides and look at the next one to get a contradiction.

Problem 4 becomes easy after noticing that if ${q}$ divides ${an+b}$ and ${cn+d}$ then ${q}$ divides ${ad-bc}$.

In Problem 5 try to prove that the choice of start points determines that of the endpoints. Then you have a simple combinatorial proof.

Problem 6 is interesting and official solutions use inversions. Those are quite nice, but it may be worthwhile to understand what happens in the non-inverted configuration.

I will come back to some of these problems in some future posts.

## Putnam 2017 A3 – Solution

Problem A3. Denote ${\phi = f-g}$. Then ${\phi}$ is continuous and ${\int_a^b \phi = 0}$. We can see that

$\displaystyle I_{n+1}-I_n = \int_a^b (f/g)^n \phi = \int_{\phi\geq 0} (f/g)^n \phi+ \int_{\phi<0} (f/g)^n \phi$

Now note that on ${\{ \phi>=0\}}$ we have ${f/g \geq 1}$ so ${(f/g)^n \phi \geq \phi}$. Furthermore, on ${\{\phi<0\}}$ we have ${(f/g)^n <1}$ so multiplying with ${\phi<0}$ we get ${(f/g)^n \phi \geq \phi}$. Therefore

$\displaystyle I_{n+1}-I_n \geq \int_{\phi \geq 0} \phi + \int_{\phi<0} \phi = \int \phi = 0.$

To prove that ${I_n}$ goes to ${+\infty}$ we can still work with ${I_{n+1}-I_n}$. Note that the negative part cannot get too big:

$\displaystyle \left|\int_{ \phi <0 } (f/g)^n \phi \right| \leq \int_{\phi<0} |\phi| \leq \int_a^b |f-g|.$

As for the positive part, taking ${0<\varepsilon< \max_{[a,b]} \phi}$ we have

$\displaystyle \int_{\phi\geq 0} (f/g)^n \phi \geq \int_{\phi>\varepsilon}(f/g)^n \varepsilon.$

Next, note that on ${\{ \phi \geq \varepsilon\}}$

$\displaystyle \frac{f}{g} = \frac{g+\phi}{g} \geq \frac{g+ \varepsilon}{g}.$

We would need that the last term be larger than ${1+\delta}$. This is equivalent to ${g\delta <\varepsilon}$. Since ${g}$ is continuous on ${[a,b]}$, it is bounded above, so some delta small enough exists in order for this to work.

Grouping all of the above we get that

$\displaystyle I_{n+1}-I_n \geq \int_{\phi \geq 0} (f/g)^n \phi \geq \int_{\phi>\varepsilon} \varepsilon (1+\delta)^n.$

Since ${|\phi>\varepsilon|>0}$ we get that ${I_{n+1}-I_n}$ goes to ${+\infty}$.

## Putnam 2017 A2 – Solution

Problem A2. We have the following recurrence relation

$\displaystyle Q_n = \frac{Q_{n-1}^2-1}{Q_{n-2}},$

for ${n \geq 2}$, given ${Q_0=1}$ and ${Q_1=x}$. In order to prove that ${Q_n}$ is always a polynomial with integer coefficients we should prove that ${Q_{n-2}}$ divides ${Q_{n-1}^2-1}$ somehow. Recurrence does not seem to work very well. Also, root based arguments might work, but you need to take good care in the computation.

A simpler idea, which is classic in this context, is to try and linearize the recurrence relation. In order to do this, let’s write two consecutive recurrence relations

$\displaystyle Q_nQ_{n-2} +1 = Q_{n-1}^2$

$\displaystyle Q_n^2 = Q_{n+1}Q_{n-1}+1$

We add them and we obtain the following relation

$\displaystyle \frac{Q_n}{Q_{n-1}} = \frac{Q_{n+1}+Q_{n-1}}{Q_n+Q_{n-2}},$

which leads straightforward to a telescoping argument. Finally, we are left with a simple linear recurrence with integer coefficient polynomials, and the result follows immediately.

## IMC 2017 – Day 2 – Problems

Problem 6. Let ${f: [0,\infty) \rightarrow \Bbb{R}}$ be a continuous function such that ${\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty}f(x) = L}$ exists (finite or infinite).

Prove that

$\displaystyle \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \int_0^1 f(nx) dx = L.$

Problem 7. Let ${p(x)}$ be a nonconstant polynomial with real coefficients. For every positive integer ${n}$ let

$\displaystyle q_n(x) = (x+1)^n p(x)+x^n p(x+1).$

Prove that there are only finitely many numbers ${n}$ such that all roots of ${q_n(x)}$ are real.

Problem 8. Define the sequence ${A_1,A_2,...}$ of matrices by the following recurrence

$\displaystyle A_1 = \begin{pmatrix} 0& 1 \\ 1& 0 \end{pmatrix}, \ A_{n+1} = \begin{pmatrix} A_n & I_{2^n} \\ I_{2^n} & A_n \end{pmatrix} \ \ (n=1,2,...)$

where ${I_m}$ is the ${m\times m}$ identity matrix.

Prove that ${A_n}$ has ${n+1}$ distinct integer eigenvalues ${\lambda_0<\lambda_1<...<\lambda_n}$ with multiplicities ${{n \choose 0},\ {n\choose 1},...,{n \choose n}}$, respectively.

Problem 9. Define the sequence ${f_1,f_2,... : [0,1) \rightarrow \Bbb{R}}$ of continuously differentiable functions by the following recurrence

$\displaystyle f_1 = 1; f'_{n+1} = f_nf_{n+1} \text{ on } (0,1) \text{ and } f_{n+1}(0)=1.$

Show that ${\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}f_n(x)}$ exists for every ${x \in [0,1)}$ and determine the limit function.

Problem 10. Let ${K}$ be an equilateral triangle in the plane. Prove that for every ${p>0}$ there exists an ${\varepsilon >0}$ with the following property: If ${n}$ is a positive integer and ${T_1,...,T_n}$ are non-overlapping triangles inside ${K}$ such that each of them is homothetic to ${K}$ with a negative ratio and

$\displaystyle \sum_{\ell =1}^n \text{area}(T_\ell) > \text{area} (K)-\varepsilon,$

then

$\displaystyle \sum_{\ell =1}^n \text{perimeter} (T_\ell) > p.$